Lovecraft Horror oder kosmischer Horror (englisch Lovecraftian Horror) ist ein Sub-Genre der. Lovecraftian Definition: referring to or reminiscent of the work of the American fantasy and horror fiction author | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und. Lovecraftian Horror - gelungene Lovecraft Adaptionen & Geschichten mit dem gewissen Weird Fiction/ Cosmic Horror Feeling, inspiriert von Howard Phillips.
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Lovecraftian Related Genres VideoTop 5 Strongest Lovecraftian Monsters Lovecrafts Wirkung zeigt sich neben der unheimlichen Literatur auch in anderen Bereichen und Kunstgattungen. Carcosa TrueDetective. Giger ist der Einfluss unverkennbar; so in dem Kebab Brothers Lingen H. Lovecraft lebte in bescheidenen Verhältnissen und bestritt seinen Lebensunterhalt hauptsächlich mit dem Redigieren von Manuskripten anderer Verfasser.
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Indeed, at a time when men viewed science as limitless and powerful, Lovecraft imagined alternative potential and fearful outcomes. In "The Call of Cthulhu", Lovecraft's characters encounter architecture which is "abnormal, non-Euclidean, and loathsomely redolent of spheres and dimensions apart from ours.
Lovecraft's works are ruled by several distinct pantheons of deities actually aliens worshiped as gods by humans who are either indifferent or actively hostile to humanity.
Lovecraft's personal philosophy has been termed "cosmic indifference" and this is expressed in his fiction. For instance, in Lovecraft's At the Mountains of Madness , it is proposed that humankind was actually created as a slave race by the Old Ones, and that life on Earth as we know it evolved from scientific experiments abandoned by the Elder Things.
Protagonist characters in Lovecraft are usually educated men, citing scientific and rational evidence to support their non-faith. In " The Silver Key ", the character Randolph Carter loses the ability to dream and seeks solace in religion, specifically Congregationalism , but does not find it and ultimately loses faith.
Lovecraft himself adopted the stance of atheism early in life. In , he wrote in a letter to Robert E. Howard :. All I say is that I think it is damned unlikely that anything like a central cosmic will, a spirit world, or an eternal survival of personality exist.
They are the most preposterous and unjustified of all the guesses which can be made about the universe, and I am not enough of a hairsplitter to pretend that I don't regard them as arrant and negligible moonshine.
In theory, I am an agnostic , but pending the appearance of radical evidence I must be classed, practically and provisionally, as an atheist.
In , famed magician and escapist Harry Houdini asked Lovecraft to ghostwrite a treatise exploring the topic of superstition. Houdini's unexpected death later that year halted the project, but The Cancer of Superstition was partially completed by Lovecraft along with collaborator C.
Eddy Jr. A previously unknown manuscript of the work was discovered in in a collection owned by a magic shop.
The book states "all superstitious beliefs are relics of a common 'prehistoric ignorance' in humans," and goes on to explore various superstitious beliefs in different cultures and times.
Lovecraft drew extensively from his native New England for settings in his fiction. Numerous historical cities and towns are mentioned, and several fictionalised versions of them make frequent appearances in his stories.
The exact locations of these municipalities were subject to change with Lovecraft's shifting literary needs.
Starting with areas that he thought were evocative, Lovecraft redefined and exaggerated them under fictional names.
For example, Lovecraft renamed the town of Oakham to Arkham and expanded it to include a nearby landmark. By , Floyd C. Gale of Galaxy Science Fiction said that "like R.
Howard , Lovecraft seemingly goes on forever; the two decades since their death are as nothing. In any event, they appear more prolific than ever.
What with de Camp , Nyberg and Derleth avidly rooting out every scrap of their writings and expanding them into novels, there may never be an end to their posthumous careers.
Early efforts to revise an established literary view of Lovecraft as an author of 'pulp' were resisted by some eminent critics; in , Edmund Wilson sneered: "the only real horror in most of these fictions is the horror of bad taste and bad art.
Sprague de Camp, Wilson later improved his opinion of Lovecraft, citing a report of David Chavchavadze that Wilson had included a Lovecraftian reference in Little Blue Light: A Play in Three Acts.
After Chavchavadze met with him to discuss this, Wilson revealed that he had been reading a copy of Lovecraft's correspondence.
Galaxy Science Fiction reviewer Floyd C. Gale said that "Lovecraft at his best could build a mood of horror unsurpassed; at his worst, he was laughable.
James , H. Wells , Aldous Huxley , J. Tolkien and others as one of the builders of mythicised realities contending against the failing project of literary realism.
Michael Dirda , a reviewer for The Times Literary Supplement , has described Lovecraft as being a "visionary" who is "rightly regarded as second only to Edgar Allan Poe in the annals of American supernatural literature.
In addition, Dirda praises Lovecraft's ability to create an uncanny atmosphere. This atmosphere is created through the feeling of wrongness that pervades the objects, places, and people in Lovecraft's works.
He also comments favorably on Lovecraft's correspondence, and compares him to Horace Walpole. Particular attention is given to his correspondence with August Derleth and Robert E.
The Derleth letters are called "delightful," while the Howard letters are described as being an ideological debate. Overall, Dirda believes that Lovecraft's letters are equal to, or better than, his fictional output.
Los Angeles Review of Books reviewer Nick Mamatas stated that Lovecraft was a particularly difficult author, rather than a bad one.
He described Lovecraft as being "perfectly capable" in the fields of story logic, pacing, innovation, and generating quotable phrases.
However, Lovecraft's difficulty made him ill-suited to the pulps; he was unable to compete with the popular recurring protagonists and damsel-in-distress stories.
Furthermore, he compared a paragraph from The Shadow Out of Time to a paragraph from the introduction to The Economic Consequences of the Peace.
In Mamatas' view, Lovecraft's quality is obscured by his difficulty, and his skill is what has allowed his following to outlive the followings of other prominent authors, such as Seabury Quinn and Kenneth Patchen.
In , the Library of America published a volume of Lovecraft's works. This volume was reviewed by many publications, including The New York Times Book Review and The Wall Street Journal , and sold 25, copies within a month of release.
The overall critical reception of the volume was mixed. Joshi and Alison Sperling, have said that this confirms H. Lovecraft's place in the western canon.
The editors of The Age of Lovecraft , Carl H. Sederholm and Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock, attributed the rise of mainstream popular and academic interest in Lovecraft to this volume, along with the Penguin Classics volumes and the Modern Library edition of At the Mountains of Madness.
These volumes led to a proliferation of other volumes containing Lovecraft's works. According to the two authors, these volumes are part of a trend in Lovecraft's popular and academic reception: increased attention by one audience causes the other to also become more interested.
Lovecraft's success is, in part, the result of his success. Lovecraft's style has often been subject to criticism,  but scholars such as S. Joshi have shown that Lovecraft consciously utilized a variety of literary devices to form a unique style of his own — these include prose-poetic rhythm, stream of consciousness, alliteration , and conscious archaism largely in his pre works.
Philosopher Graham Harman , seeing Lovecraft as expressing a unique—though implicit— antireductionist ontology , writes: "No other writer is so perplexed by the gap between objects and the power of language to describe them, or between objects and the qualities they possess.
According to scholar S. Joshi : "There is never an entity in Lovecraft that is not in some fashion material. Several media outlets published articles discussing Lovecraft's legacy as a horror fiction writer, with many outlets in the s discussing and criticizing Lovecraft's racism and homophobia.
Jemisin considers Lovecraft's racial attitudes essential to his literary world: "his biases were the basis of his horror.
He does some incredible imagery, it's powerful work, but it's frightening The first World Fantasy Awards were held in Providence in The theme was "The Lovecraft Circle.
In , Lovecraft was awarded the Retro-Hugo Award for Best Series for the Cthulhu Mythos. Lovecraft was relatively unknown during his lifetime. He did, however, correspond regularly with other contemporary writers such as Clark Ashton Smith and August Derleth,  who became his good friends, even though he never met them in person.
This group became known as the "Lovecraft Circle," since their writing freely borrowed Lovecraft's motifs, with his encouragement: the mysterious books with disturbing names such as the Necronomicon , the pantheon of ancient alien entities such as Cthulhu and Azathoth, and eldritch places such as the ill-omened New England town of Arkham and its Miskatonic University.
After Lovecraft's death, the Lovecraft Circle carried on. August Derleth in particular added to and expanded on Lovecraft's vision, not without controversy.
While Lovecraft considered his pantheon of alien gods a mere plot device, Derleth created an entire cosmology, complete with a war between the good Elder Gods and the evil Outer Gods , such as Cthulhu and his ilk.
The forces of good were supposed to have won, locking Cthulhu and others beneath the earth, the ocean, and elsewhere. Derleth's Cthulhu Mythos stories went on to associate different gods with the traditional four elements of fire, air, earth and water — an artificial constraint which required rationalizations on Derleth's part as Lovecraft himself never envisioned such a scheme.
Lovecraft's writing, particularly the so-called Cthulhu Mythos, has influenced fiction authors including modern horror and fantasy writers.
Kiernan ,  William S. Burroughs ,  and Neil Gaiman ,  have cited Lovecraft as one of their primary influences. Beyond direct adaptation, Lovecraft and his stories have had a profound impact on popular culture.
Some influence was direct, as he was a friend, inspiration, and correspondent to many of his contemporaries, such as August Derleth, Robert E.
Howard, Robert Bloch and Fritz Leiber. Many later figures were influenced by Lovecraft's works, including author and artist Clive Barker ,  prolific horror writer Stephen King,  comics writers Alan Moore, Neil Gaiman  and Mike Mignola ,  English author Colin Wilson , film directors John Carpenter ,  Stuart Gordon , Guillermo del Toro ,  and artist H.
Japan has also been significantly inspired and terrified by Lovecraft's creations and thus even entered the manga and anime media.
Chiaki J. Konaka is an acknowledged disciple and has participated in Cthulhu Mythos, expanding several Japanese versions, and is credited for spreading the influence of Lovecraft among the anime base.
Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges wrote his short story " There Are More Things " in memory of Lovecraft. Contemporary French writer Michel Houellebecq wrote a literary biography, H.
Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life. Prolific American writer Joyce Carol Oates wrote an introduction for a collection of Lovecraft stories.
The Library of America published a volume of Lovecraft's work in , a reversal of the traditional judgment that there "has been nothing so far from the accepted canon as Lovecraft.
Groups of enthusiasts annually observe the anniversaries of Lovecraft's death at Ladd Observatory and of his birth at his grave site.
In July , the Providence City Council designated "H. Lovecraft Memorial Square" and installed a commemorative sign at the intersection of Angell and Prospect streets, near the author's former residences.
Lovecraft's fictional Mythos has influenced a number of musicians, especially in rock music. The psychedelic rock band H.
Lovecraft who shortened their name to Lovecraft and then Love Craft in the s released the albums H. Lovecraft and H. Lovecraft II in and respectively; their songs included " The White Ship " and "At the Mountains of Madness", both titled after Lovecraft stories.
Bill Traut and George Badonsky, who set up Dunwich Records , were fans of the author and gained August Derleth's permission to use Lovecraft's name for the band.
Metallica recorded a song inspired by "The Call of Cthulhu", an instrumental titled The Call of Ktulu , a song based on The Shadow over Innsmouth titled The Thing That Should Not Be and another based on Frank Belknap Long 's Hounds of Tindalos titled All Nightmare Long.
Later, they released the song Dream No More , which mentions the awakening of Cthulhu. Their name is derived from a line in " The Tomb ".
Lovecraft has also influenced gaming, despite having hated games during his lifetime. Novel to the game was the Lovecraft-inspired insanity mechanic, which allowed for player characters to go insane from contact with cosmic horrors.
This mechanic would go on to make appearance in subsequent table top and video games. Though few subsequent Lovecraftian board games were released annually from to , the years after saw a surge in the number of Lovecraftian board games, possibly because of the entry of Lovecraft's work into the public domain combined with a revival of interest in board games.
Few video games are direct adaptations of Lovecraft's works, but many video games have been inspired or heavily influenced by Lovecraft.
Besides employing Cthulthean antagonists, games that invoke Lovecraftian horror have used mechanics such as insanity effects, or even fourth wall breaking effects that suggest to players that something has gone wrong with their game consoles.
Several contemporary religions have drawn influence from the works of Lovecraft. The Satanic Rituals , written either by Anton LaVey or Michael A.
Aquino, includes an essay which claims that the works of Lovecraft carry a partial truth, used in the same symbolic manner as Satan.
Kenneth Grant of the Typhonian Order incorporated Lovecraft's Mythos into his ritual and occult system, but in a more direct and literal sense than the Church of Satan.
However, the Typhonian Order does not consider the entities to be directly existent, but rather a symbol through which people may interact with something inhuman.
There have been several books that have claimed to be an authentic edition of Lovecraft's Necronomicon. It was written by an unknown figure who identified themselves as "Simon.
Levenda went on to claim that Lovecraft had access to this purported scroll. The finding of a magical text by monks is also a common theme in the history of grimoires.
For most of the 20th century, the definitive editions specifically At the Mountains of Madness and Other Novels , Dagon and Other Macabre Tales , The Dunwich Horror and Others , and The Horror in the Museum and Other Revisions of his prose fiction were published by Arkham House , a publisher originally started with the intent of publishing the work of Lovecraft, but which has since published a considerable amount of other literature as well.
Penguin Classics has at present issued three volumes of Lovecraft's works: The Call of Cthulhu and Other Weird Stories , The Thing on the Doorstep and Other Weird Stories , and most recently The Dreams in the Witch House and Other Weird Stories.
They collect the standard texts as edited by S. Joshi, most of which were available in the Arkham House editions, with the exception of the restored text of The Shadow Out of Time from The Dreams in the Witch House , which had been previously released by small-press publisher Hippocampus Press.
In the prestigious Library of America canonized Lovecraft with a volume of his stories edited by Peter Straub , and Random House's Modern Library line have issued the "definitive edition" of Lovecraft's At the Mountains of Madness also including Supernatural Horror in Literature.
In , Liveright Publishing Corp. Norton published The New Annotated H. Lovecraft , edited by Leslie S. Klinger , containing 22 of Lovecraft's tales, with an introduction by Alan Moore ; in September , the second volume of Klinger's annotations, The New Annotated H.
Lovecraft: Beyond Arkham , containing another 25 of Lovecraft's tales, was published, with an introduction by Victor LaValle. Lovecraft's poetry is collected in The Ancient Track: The Complete Poetical Works of H.
Lovecraft Night Shade Books, , while much of his juvenilia, various essays on philosophical, political and literary topics, antiquarian travelogues, and other things, can be found in Miscellaneous Writings Arkham House, Lovecraft's essay Supernatural Horror in Literature , first published in , is a historical survey of horror literature available with endnotes as The Annotated Supernatural Horror in Literature.
Although Lovecraft is known mostly for his works of weird fiction, the bulk of his writing consists of voluminous letters about a variety of topics, from weird fiction and art criticism to politics and history.
Lovecraft's biographer L. Sprague de Camp estimates that Lovecraft wrote , letters in his lifetime, a fifth of which are believed to survive.
Lovecraft was not an active letter-writer in youth. The initial interest in letters stemmed from his correspondence with his cousin Phillips Gamwell and his involvement in the amateur journalism movement.
Lovecraft's later correspondence was primarily to fellow weird fiction writers, rather than to the amateur journalist friends of his earlier years. He sometimes dated his letters years before the current date, which would have put the writing back in US colonial times, before the American Revolution a war that offended his Anglophilia.
He explained that he thought that the 18th and 20th centuries were the "best," the former being a period of noble grace, and the latter a century of science.
Lovecraft clearly states that his contact to numerous different people through letter-writing was one of the main factors in broadening his view of the world: "I found myself opened up to dozens of points of view which would otherwise never have occurred to me.
My understanding and sympathies were enlarged, and many of my social, political, and economic views were modified as a consequence of increased knowledge.
There are five publishing houses that have released letters from Lovecraft, most prominently Arkham House with its five-volume edition Selected Letters these volumes severely abridge the letters they contain.
Other publishers are Hippocampus Press Letters to Alfred Galpin et al. Lovecraft and Donald Wandrei et al. Lovecraft's Letters to R.
Joshi is supervising an ongoing series of volumes collecting Lovecraft's unabridged letters to particular correspondents. Despite several claims to the contrary, there is currently no evidence that any company or individual owns the copyright to any of Lovecraft's work, and it is generally accepted that it has passed into the public domain.
All of Lovecraft's works published during his lifetime became public domain in all 27 European Union countries on January 1, In those Berne Convention countries that have implemented only the minimum copyright period, copyright expires 50 years after the author's death.
Regarding the United States, all works published before are public domain. Lovecraft had specified that the young R.
Barlow would serve as executor of his literary estate ,  but these instructions were not incorporated into the will. Nevertheless, his surviving aunt carried out his expressed wishes, and Barlow was given charge of the massive and complex literary estate upon Lovecraft's death.
Barlow deposited the bulk of the papers, including the voluminous correspondence, with the John Hay Library , and attempted to organize and maintain Lovecraft's other writing.
August Derleth , an older and more established writer than Barlow, vied for control of the literary estate. Barlow committed suicide in On October 9, , Derleth purchased all rights to Weird Tales.
However, since April at the latest, Lovecraft had reserved to himself all second printing rights to stories published in Weird Tales.
Weird Tales may only have owned the rights to at most six of Lovecraft's tales. Again, even if Derleth did obtain the copyrights to Lovecraft's tales, there is no evidence that the copyrights were renewed.
Following Derleth's death in , his attorney proclaimed that all of Lovecraft's literary material was part of the Derleth estate and that it would be "protected to the fullest extent possible.
Joshi concludes in his biography of Lovecraft that Derleth's claims are "almost certainly fictitious" and that most of Lovecraft's works published in the amateur press are most likely now in the public domain.
The copyright for Lovecraft's works would have been inherited by the only surviving heir named in his will, his aunt Annie Gamwell.
Searches of the Library of Congress have failed to find any evidence that these copyrights were renewed after the year period, making it likely that these works are now in the public domain.
He encouraged other writers to reference his creations, such as the Necronomicon , Cthulhu and Yog-Sothoth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
American horror story author and originator of the Cthulhu Mythos. This article is about the author. For the rock group, see H.
Lovecraft band. Lewis Theobald Humphrey Littlewit Ward Phillips Edward Softly Percy Simple. Sonia Greene. With the advent of United I obtained a renewed will to live; a renewed sense of existence as other than a superfluous weight; and found a sphere in which I could feel that my efforts were not wholly futile.
For the first time I could imagine that my clumsy gropings after art were a little more than faint cries lost in the unlistening void.
Now all my tales are based on the fundamental premise that common human laws and interests and emotions have no validity or significance in the vast cosmos-at-large.
To me there is nothing but puerility in a tale in which the human form—and the local human passions and conditions and standards—are depicted as native to other worlds or other universes.
To achieve the essence of real externality, whether of time or space or dimension, one must forget that such things as organic life, good and evil, love and hate, and all such local attributes of a negligible and temporary race called mankind, have any existence at all.
Only the human scenes and characters must have human qualities. These must be handled with unsparing realism , not catch-penny romanticism but when we cross the line to the boundless and hideous unknown—the shadow-haunted Outside —we must remember to leave our humanity and terrestrialism at the threshold.
Main article: Lovecraft Country. Main articles: Lovecraftian horror and Cthulhu Mythos in popular culture. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: H. Lovecraft bibliography. Sprague de Camp and S. Joshi's estimates.
Sprague de Camp also stated that the two men began calling each other "Monstro. VIII; Klein , pp. Armand , pp. Copyright Office ; Cornell University Library The Hugo Awards.
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Bush, Laurence Writers Club Press. Cardin, Matt Lovecraft's Influence on Thomas Ligotti". The Binding of Isaac and its sequel The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth are roguelike games based on many biblical themes.
Both games feature an item called Necronomicon , a direct reference to Lovecraft's Necronomicon. The From Software game Bloodborne includes many references to Lovecraftian elements, especially cosmicism , putting in familiar terms from Lovecraft, such as the inclusion of "The Great Ones" or "Outer Gods" as the main driver of the game's events.
The game also uses the Lovecraftian theme of insanity as a driving point for its plot. The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild includes a Lovecraftian horror inspired creature at the end of the game known as Dark Beast Ganon.
The Nexus, a setting of MOBA game Heroes of the Storm , and the Dark Nexus realm contain elements of the cosmic horror of the unknown.
Sunless Sea is heavily inspired by Lovecraftian horror, with themes like the fear of the unknown. Darkest Dungeon is a role-playing game that displays many themes of Lovecraft's writing such as forbidden knowledge, non-human influences on humanity, inherited guilt, fate, civilization under threat and more.
Darkest Dungeon ' s developer, Red Hook Studios Inc. Lovecraft 's writing in the aesthetic of the company's branding: the name alluding to his story " The Horror at Red Hook ," and the company's logo which features a prominent tentacle, alluding to Lovecraft's iconic cosmic entity, Cthulhu.
On April 26, Hearthstone , a free-to-play digital collectible card game , released a card expansion called " Whispers of the Old Gods " which is based on a theme which revolves around Lovecraftian horror.
Edge of Nowhere is a Lovecraftian action-adventure virtual reality game from Insomniac Games. Sundered is a metroidvania video game that makes heavy use of Lovecraftian elements.
The main character, Eshe, is guided through an ever-shifting underworld by an eldritch being known as the "Shining Trapezohedron".
The game involves fighting off monsters and gathering Elder Shards, which allow the Shining Trapezohedron to grant Eshe new abilities at the cost of her humanity.
The Sinking City is an open-world horror game in which the player character is a tormented private investigator in the '20s who explores the fishing town of Okamont located not too far from Innsmouth , cut off from mainland by a mysterious flood, and progressively finds clues about the madness-inducing entity of Cthylla, a star-spawn of Cthulhu.
The Flood of the video game Halo franchise contains Lovecraftian horror elements, particularly its leader the Gravemind.
These elements are even more prominent in Halo's expanded universe such as the Forerunner Saga books, where the Flood is revealed to be the reanimated remains of an ancient race known as the Precursors who themselves are inspired by Lovecraftian deities.
The Precursors were higher-dimensional beings that existed for at least billion years, could assume any form they desired, physical or incorporeal and created most if not all life in the universe and potentially the universe itself.
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New York: Library of America. The Encyclopedia Cthulhiana : A Guide to Lovecraftian Horror. Lovecraft And The Shadow Over Horror".
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Mike Mignola's mind has been enslaved by the Great Ones. He easily evokes the atmosphere of the grandmaster of horror. Lovecraft to Ridley Scott".
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